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Compendium of posts on Hobby Lobby and related cases
The Anti-Torture Memos: Balkinization Posts on Torture, Interrogation, Detention, War Powers, and OLC
The Anti-Torture Memos (arranged by topic)
ABA Task Force Report on Presidential Signing Statements
Sunday, July 23, 2006
ABA Task Force Report on Presidential Signing Statements
The American Bar Association this evening released a Report by a bipartisan task force on presidential signing statements and the separation of powers. The Report was prompted by the President’s stealth signing statement regarding the McCain Amendment back in December, and by the terrific archival work of Phillip Cooper, Christopher Kelley and Charlie Savage, demonstrating the Bush Administration’s prodigious use of signing statements to announce the President’s constitutional doubts about numerous statutory enactments, and the President's intentions to construe and implement numerous statutory provisions in a manner inconsistent with legislative intent.
The ABA has a few creative proposals in mind which I hope you'll discuss when you have time. I think the most interesting ones are the ones directed towards Congress. They want Congress to force Bush to say what his signing statements actually mean (e.g. what does "consistent with Article II" or whatever mean in relation to the McCain Amendment). Even more interestingly, they want Congress to pass a law granting themselves standing to sue Bush to force him to enforce their laws. This gets all three branches involved, but it requires a Congressional spine. Since Arlen Specter's committee has to pass both these things, they probably won't go anywhere, but they're still great ideas.
The issue of non-enforcement by the President extends down in the executive branch (and at the state executive level down as well). Decisions not to enforce laws are made all the time for varied reasons. If the non-enforcement debate is limited to constitutional issues, then perhaps the focus on Presidential non-enforcement should be more closely examined. Consider a law passed before a particular President came into office. Isn't that President somewhat obliged not to enforce what appears to him to be an unconstitutional law? (After all, he did not have the opportunity to accept or reject the statute from become law.) The answer is not easy. Think of the Fugitive Slave statute. And keep in mind that judicial review does not give rise to judicial supremacy over the other branches.
I would say that the President has an obligation to not enforce unconstitutional provisions. His obligation to uphold and defend the Constitution is equal to, and independent from the other two branches'.
However, he also has an obligation to veto unconstitutional bills, and the very fact that he signed a bill undercuts any standing he might have to claim that it's unconstitutional. The signing was the greater, and root, offense.
That said, we all know that the ABA is a partisan organization which doesn't much care about the Constitution or rule of law. (Though the rule of lawyers is somewhat important to them.) So I'd say this is best interpreted as just a partisan attack on a President of the other party.
We have so little to protect us against resolute efforts to manipulate the possible in the interests of power. Something I worte years ago that still sems true to me:
To paraphrase a remark Richard Posner made about judicial interpretation of statutes, an irresponsible President will have his way whatever approach we may urge, and a stupid one will blunder. What we are seeking is an understanding suitable for the President of good faith -- the President who wants to know what it is his to do. It is in my judgment a considerable mistake to suggest to him a view of "the laws," the faithful execution of which he has undertaken to assure, that is any narrower than the whole as he conscionably and attentively understands them to be.
That the President takes an oath to uphold the Constitution will not protect us from a lawless, stupid, or power-hungry President misusing that oath to serve his own ends. But it also does not undercut the right and responsibility of one better equipped to, OCCASIONALLY, follow his own view of what the Constitution commands. The problem lies in the number, not the fact.
Could these Presidential Signing Statements be the ultimate flip-flop: I was for it, before I was against it?
It seems strange to me that a constitutionally required act, signing a Bill into Law, could be taken to have any other meaning _at all_ than total enactment. Where are the words in the Constitution which explain this original interpretation?
The only signing 'statement' of consequence is the President's signature.
Another aspect of this, which could be borrowed from the Bush Admin's philosophy is that 'deference' to the validity of actions of another governmental branch is required. So maybe the bottom line of Hamdan is that 'deference' is a two way street. If you challenge another branch and assert inherent powers, it seems only fair (fair?) that you cannot rely on those other branches to defer to you in assessing your claim of inherent power.
Is there a clear shift at some point between what seems -- to me at any rate -- the original purpose of signing statements, namely to let the executive participate in the creation of a historica record that later appellate courts might choose to consult, and the stealth-veto-cum-ukase understanding of the signing statement that the present crew in the White House espouse?
I, too, have prior commitments and time demands. I think you should rest assured the ABA report on signing statements closely characterizes the import of 'Bush-II' as both substance and sheer similarity of language employed in the many hundreds of statutes rejected by Bush-II. To obtain this view, though, one needs to click through the footnotes in the ABA report, as some of the most lucid writing is in the so incorporated and referenced ancillary research reports.
In a sense, as I continue reading thru the ABA report, it has a snapshot in time essence about it. Indeed, one of the oft referenced writer's work is updated in sources more recent that the ABA discusses.
I found interesting in following these links the colorful histories of what precisely were those situations which elicited signing statements from prior presidents; I could picture an entire library of books written discussing each of those highly charged and contentious historical times.
To mention a few: the hawks taking Carter to task for pardoning draft resisters; and some of the social legislation during Reagan's terms; equally, as modern times apparently have brought societal mores into the limelight, in Dellinger's epoch, the social hawks protests about Clinton's gender neutral policies.
Your link to the Kendall decision 180 years ago serves as a reminder of the great energy with which politics infuses executive exercise of power, and the checks and balances among the branches of government.
With regard to one visitor's blanket disclaimer, above, I suggest that guest click to the bonafides page at the ABA for a backgrounder on who precisely were the blueribbon authors of the report. If one was searching for law schools whose deans might be on such a panel, probably a centrist to rightward view might be assured if deans from Stanford and Yale were selected; such was the case. Among other individuals on the blueribbon panel were Ogletree and Fein; both testified before the mini-hearing which Sen. Specter held a few weeks ago on signing statements, and both were distinctly reserved.
Besides the qualitative aspect of Bush-II signing statements, the report emphasizes as the media has, that the quantity of such statements is extraordinary.
Politics dealing with living and cherished public figures being a delicate matter, the ABA report nevertheless ventured into discussing a few of the occasions which brought Bush-I to use signing statements.
Furthermore, the ABA report views the sweep of modern history as one in which the numbers and potency of signing statements increased.
As I continue to read and digest the ABA report, it seems like a clear message to congress that the matter is worth assessing and addressing, given that it has become a new way of governance fairly outside the ordinary ways laws had worked previously.
I welcome this voice very much. Let's here more, many more, and in particular let's hear from Alito who is widely recognized as an early proponent of more robust "signing" statements. He owes us that even if the cost of this will be his participation in future cases.
This debate is too important not to hear from him as a constitutional scholar and citizen.
This of course assumes that his signing statements were something more that what he put on that job application with Meese.
The ABA report focuses on what a President says about laws he signs, and provides a useful history of signing statements. History is important, but so would have been some discussion of related areas.
The first is how the President interprets or ignores existing law. There seems to be less wiggle room for a president to assume a different interpretation than the one existing when s/he assumed office.
Second is a veto override. Since Congress must vote on the same Bill as the President vetoed, it is impossible to cure any of the objections the President has with the Bill. More votes from Congress will not cure an unconstitutional provision, although it might make it more difficult for the President to protest publicly (but maybe not).
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Jack M. Balkin, What Roe v. Wade Should Have Said: The Nation's Top Legal Experts Rewrite America's Most Controversial Decision - Revised Edition (NYU Press, 2023)
Andrew Koppelman, Burning Down the House: How Libertarian Philosophy Was Corrupted by Delusion and Greed (St. Martin’s Press, 2022)
Gerard N. Magliocca, Washington's Heir: The Life of Justice Bushrod Washington (Oxford University Press, 2022)
Joseph Fishkin and William E. Forbath, The Anti-Oligarchy Constitution: Reconstructing the Economic Foundations of American Democracy (Harvard University Press, 2022)
Mark Tushnet and Bojan Bugaric, Power to the People: Constitutionalism in the Age of Populism (Oxford University Press 2021).
Mark Philip Bradley and Mary L. Dudziak, eds., Making the Forever War: Marilyn B. Young on the Culture and Politics of American Militarism Culture and Politics in the Cold War and Beyond (University of Massachusetts Press, 2021).
Jack M. Balkin, What Obergefell v. Hodges Should Have Said: The Nation's Top Legal Experts Rewrite America's Same-Sex Marriage Decision (Yale University Press, 2020)
Frank Pasquale, New Laws of Robotics: Defending Human Expertise in the Age of AI (Belknap Press, 2020)
Jack M. Balkin, The Cycles of Constitutional Time (Oxford University Press, 2020)
Mark Tushnet, Taking Back the Constitution: Activist Judges and the Next Age of American Law (Yale University Press 2020).
Andrew Koppelman, Gay Rights vs. Religious Liberty?: The Unnecessary Conflict (Oxford University Press, 2020)
Ezekiel J Emanuel and Abbe R. Gluck, The Trillion Dollar Revolution: How the Affordable Care Act Transformed Politics, Law, and Health Care in America (PublicAffairs, 2020)
Linda C. McClain, Who's the Bigot?: Learning from Conflicts over Marriage and Civil Rights Law (Oxford University Press, 2020)
Sanford Levinson and Jack M. Balkin, Democracy and Dysfunction (University of Chicago Press, 2019)
Sanford Levinson, Written in Stone: Public Monuments in Changing Societies (Duke University Press 2018)
Mark A. Graber, Sanford Levinson, and Mark Tushnet, eds., Constitutional Democracy in Crisis? (Oxford University Press 2018)
Gerard Magliocca, The Heart of the Constitution: How the Bill of Rights became the Bill of Rights (Oxford University Press, 2018)
Cynthia Levinson and Sanford Levinson, Fault Lines in the Constitution: The Framers, Their Fights, and the Flaws that Affect Us Today (Peachtree Publishers, 2017)
Brian Z. Tamanaha, A Realistic Theory of Law (Cambridge University Press 2017)
Sanford Levinson, Nullification and Secession in Modern Constitutional Thought (University Press of Kansas 2016)
Sanford Levinson, An Argument Open to All: Reading The Federalist in the 21st Century (Yale University Press 2015)
Stephen M. Griffin, Broken Trust: Dysfunctional Government and Constitutional Reform (University Press of Kansas, 2015)
Frank Pasquale, The Black Box Society: The Secret Algorithms That Control Money and Information (Harvard University Press, 2015)
Bruce Ackerman, We the People, Volume 3: The Civil Rights Revolution (Harvard University Press, 2014)
Balkinization Symposium on We the People, Volume 3: The Civil Rights Revolution
Joseph Fishkin, Bottlenecks: A New Theory of Equal Opportunity (Oxford University Press, 2014)
Mark A. Graber, A New Introduction to American Constitutionalism (Oxford University Press, 2013)
John Mikhail, Elements of Moral Cognition: Rawls' Linguistic Analogy and the Cognitive Science of Moral and Legal Judgment (Cambridge University Press, 2013)
Gerard N. Magliocca, American Founding Son: John Bingham and the Invention of the Fourteenth Amendment (New York University Press, 2013)
Stephen M. Griffin, Long Wars and the Constitution (Harvard University Press, 2013)
Andrew Koppelman, The Tough Luck Constitution and the Assault on Health Care Reform (Oxford University Press, 2013)
James E. Fleming and Linda C. McClain, Ordered Liberty: Rights, Responsibilities, and Virtues (Harvard University Press, 2013)
Balkinization Symposium on Ordered Liberty: Rights, Responsibilities, and Virtues
Andrew Koppelman, Defending American Religious Neutrality (Harvard University Press, 2013)
Brian Z. Tamanaha, Failing Law Schools (University of Chicago Press, 2012)
Sanford Levinson, Framed: America's 51 Constitutions and the Crisis of Governance (Oxford University Press, 2012)
Linda C. McClain and Joanna L. Grossman, Gender Equality: Dimensions of Women's Equal Citizenship (Cambridge University Press, 2012)
Mary Dudziak, War Time: An Idea, Its History, Its Consequences (Oxford University Press, 2012)
Jack M. Balkin, Living Originalism (Harvard University Press, 2011)
Jason Mazzone, Copyfraud and Other Abuses of Intellectual Property Law (Stanford University Press, 2011)
Richard W. Garnett and Andrew Koppelman, First Amendment Stories, (Foundation Press 2011)
Jack M. Balkin, Constitutional Redemption: Political Faith in an Unjust World (Harvard University Press, 2011)
Gerard Magliocca, The Tragedy of William Jennings Bryan: Constitutional Law and the Politics of Backlash (Yale University Press, 2011)
Bernard Harcourt, The Illusion of Free Markets: Punishment and the Myth of Natural Order (Harvard University Press, 2010)
Bruce Ackerman, The Decline and Fall of the American Republic (Harvard University Press, 2010)
Balkinization Symposium on The Decline and Fall of the American Republic
Ian Ayres. Carrots and Sticks: Unlock the Power of Incentives to Get Things Done (Bantam Books, 2010)
Mark Tushnet, Why the Constitution Matters (Yale University Press 2010)
Ian Ayres and Barry Nalebuff: Lifecycle Investing: A New, Safe, and Audacious Way to Improve the Performance of Your Retirement Portfolio (Basic Books, 2010)
Jack M. Balkin, The Laws of Change: I Ching and the Philosophy of Life (2d Edition, Sybil Creek Press 2009)
Brian Z. Tamanaha, Beyond the Formalist-Realist Divide: The Role of Politics in Judging (Princeton University Press 2009)
Andrew Koppelman and Tobias Barrington Wolff, A Right to Discriminate?: How the Case of Boy Scouts of America v. James Dale Warped the Law of Free Association (Yale University Press 2009)
Jack M. Balkin and Reva B. Siegel, The Constitution in 2020 (Oxford University Press 2009)
Heather K. Gerken, The Democracy Index: Why Our Election System Is Failing and How to Fix It (Princeton University Press 2009)
Mary Dudziak, Exporting American Dreams: Thurgood Marshall's African Journey (Oxford University Press 2008)
David Luban, Legal Ethics and Human Dignity (Cambridge Univ. Press 2007)
Ian Ayres, Super Crunchers: Why Thinking-By-Numbers is the New Way to be Smart (Bantam 2007)
Jack M. Balkin, James Grimmelmann, Eddan Katz, Nimrod Kozlovski, Shlomit Wagman and Tal Zarsky, eds., Cybercrime: Digital Cops in a Networked Environment (N.Y.U. Press 2007)
Jack M. Balkin and Beth Simone Noveck, The State of Play: Law, Games, and Virtual Worlds (N.Y.U. Press 2006)
Andrew Koppelman, Same Sex, Different States: When Same-Sex Marriages Cross State Lines (Yale University Press 2006)
Brian Tamanaha, Law as a Means to an End (Cambridge University Press 2006)
Sanford Levinson, Our Undemocratic Constitution (Oxford University Press 2006)
Mark Graber, Dred Scott and the Problem of Constitutional Evil (Cambridge University Press 2006)
Jack M. Balkin, ed., What Roe v. Wade Should Have Said (N.Y.U. Press 2005)
Sanford Levinson, ed., Torture: A Collection (Oxford University Press 2004)
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