Thursday, April 21, 2005
Less Information Can Improve Decisionmaking
Malcolm Gladwell gave a great talk at a fundraiser for All Our Kin.
The triangle should be enlarged to include the prosecution and defense counsel. Consider the Michael Jackson trial. Let all hang out. In the blinks of the jurors' eyes, what do they see, what impresses them? Perhaps it is not the evidence but just being there, soaking in the scene. But does this result in justice?
"There is no reason in the world that the jurors need to see a non-testifying defendant."
So why have they for centuries?
Generally, there is a right for the public at large to view a trial. It seems strange that the jury would be exempt from seeing the defendant.
Also, a defendant blocked from view is suspicious. The jury wants to see who they are trying. This surely is a major reason why centuries of practice saw "some" reason for the jury seeing the defendant.
Finally, I'm not clear if more lawyers are crying for this right. If they did, I'd think would not make a big push for the defendant to be there. Does the defendant really help them much as they examine and cross?
Interesting post. Your focus on anonymity is important, but I think we could go further by taking a broader view of the word "information" in the sentence "less information can lead to better decisionmaking."
We get less information not only when we restrict our perceptions (such as by blocking the jury's view of the defendant), but more generally whenever we gain no additional insight or learn anything new from some perception.
For instance, if all defendants have to wear the same exact outfit and that is explained to the jury, then the outfit worn by a defendant
will carry no information - and thus presumably should have the benefits to decisionmaking that Gladwell discusses.
One of the most commonly sited defenses of the on ban hearsay is that the jury can rely on demeanor evidence to helpfully evaluate whether or not a witness is 1) lying or 2) sincerely testifying, but incompetent. This is the point of Laurence Tribe 's triangle diagram of what constitutes hearsay.
However, several studies have questioned the value of demeanor evidence. One set of these studies suggests that people are better at detecting whether a witness is lying when they read a transcript of cross-examination, than when they witness it in person. Another set of studies suggest that demeanor evidence of no value when the witness is sincerely testifying but mistakenly as to their testimony.
While it might be the case that “Gladwell is clearly right that there is no reason why jury should see defendant,” but it might also be the case there is no reason the jury should see the witnesses.
[See Olin Guy Willborn, 76 Cornell Law Review 1075, for a basic overview of the literature. The studies Willborn sites are old, but not necessarily outdated. Additionally more recent studies have been conducted on the same subject, correcting for some of the flaws in the earlier studies and reaching the same conclusion. I don’t have a citation at the tip of my fingers, but I’m sure they could be easily found on lexis or westlaw.]
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